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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(6)

We have shown that defective spermatozoa become ubiquitinated in the caput epididymis, presumably by the enzymatic ubiquitination machinery residing within epididymal fluid. The percentage of defective spermatozoa is reduced after passage through the corpus epididymis. Since proteasomes have also been detected in the epididymal fluid, it is possible that defective spermatozoa are partially degraded intraluminally in the caput and corpus epididymis and that the resident clear cells of the corpus epididymis take up and degrade the ubiquitinated proteins released from moribund spermatozoa.

Such a mechanism of defective sperm ubiquitination in the caput and removal in the corpus epididymis is consistent with the transcriptional profiles of the individual epididymal segment from the present study (see Fig. 7). The mRNAs of Ubel, Ube2d3, and Uchll are most prominent in the caput epididymis, whereas the constitutive proteasomal core subunits prevail in the corpus epididymis. THP- and DNB-reduced expression of Psmbl, Psmb2, and Psmb5—the ones with actual protease activities— within the caput and corpus epididymis could alter the epididymal fluid composition and disposal of defective spermatozoa in several ways: by reducing the population of the assembled proteasomes in clear cells, by diminishing the release of assembled proteasomes from secretory epithelial cells into epididymal fluid, by saturating the proteolytic capacity of the remaining proteasomes, or by directly reducing the proteasomal proteolytic activities of assembled protea-somes in the epididymal fluid and/or the clear cell cytoplasm.

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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(9)

While we found that both constitutive p subunits and their inducible counterparts were expressed in the testis and epididymis, only the constitutional subunits showed significant expression changes in the tissues of the exposed animals. Products of two of the three examined UPP enzyme genes not directly associated with the proteasome, … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(8)

However, several other genes showed significant expression level changes in certain segments alone after either THP or DNB exposure. This indicates that THP and DNB cause significant changes in gene expression in specific compartments of the male reproductive system. For example, Psmb8 showed a P-value of 0.156 between the control … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(7)

Inducible proteasomal core subunits PSMB9, PMSB8, and PSMB10 replace their constitutive counterparts PMSB5, PMSB1, and PMSB2 in the professional antigen-presenting cells but are also present in other cell types, such as eye lens cells and the sperm acrosome. The expression of inducible subunit Pmsb8 as measured by semiquantitative RT was … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(6)

We have shown that defective spermatozoa become ubiquitinated in the caput epididymis, presumably by the enzymatic ubiquitination machinery residing within epididymal fluid. The percentage of defective spermatozoa is reduced after passage through the corpus epididymis. Since proteasomes have also been detected in the epididymal fluid, it is possible that defective … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(5)

Alzheimer disease has been linked to the aberrant transcription of the ubiquitin-B (UB-B) gene, caused by a +1 frame-shift during transcription. This misreading results in the translation of the dysfunctional UB-B +1 protein with the elongated C-terminus not capable of ligation to a substrate protein. Consequently, the amyloid protein within … Continue reading