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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(3)


While this shortcoming could be compensated for by dual DNA ubiquitin flow cytometry, we found the current analysis, which was based on the distribution within markers M1-M3, sufficiently informative and reflective of THP exposure.

Because of the previously established association between sperm abnormalities and sperm surface ubiquitination, we expected that a toxic exposure to DNB in the absence of sperm fragmentation (as observed in THP rats) would increase the surface ubiquitination of defective cauda epididymal spermatozoa.

However, there was actually a decrease (see Fig. 4). This could be because of the reduced expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes within the epididymal epithelia and epididymal fluid, among which the reduction in the expression of Ube2d3 was impaired in a highly significant manner (P = 0.003). Accordingly, we have observed the perinuclear accumulation of UBE2, perhaps reflecting the association of UBE2 with the ubiquitin-dependent, endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein-quality control mechanism (ERAD), in the principal cells of the control epithelia (Fig. 9B) but not in the DNB-exposed epithelia.

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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(9)

While we found that both constitutive p subunits and their inducible counterparts were expressed in the testis and epididymis, only the constitutional subunits showed significant expression changes in the tissues of the exposed animals. Products of two of the three examined UPP enzyme genes not directly associated with the proteasome, … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(8)

However, several other genes showed significant expression level changes in certain segments alone after either THP or DNB exposure. This indicates that THP and DNB cause significant changes in gene expression in specific compartments of the male reproductive system. For example, Psmb8 showed a P-value of 0.156 between the control … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(7)

Inducible proteasomal core subunits PSMB9, PMSB8, and PSMB10 replace their constitutive counterparts PMSB5, PMSB1, and PMSB2 in the professional antigen-presenting cells but are also present in other cell types, such as eye lens cells and the sperm acrosome. The expression of inducible subunit Pmsb8 as measured by semiquantitative RT was … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(6)

We have shown that defective spermatozoa become ubiquitinated in the caput epididymis, presumably by the enzymatic ubiquitination machinery residing within epididymal fluid. The percentage of defective spermatozoa is reduced after passage through the corpus epididymis. Since proteasomes have also been detected in the epididymal fluid, it is possible that defective … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(5)

Alzheimer disease has been linked to the aberrant transcription of the ubiquitin-B (UB-B) gene, caused by a +1 frame-shift during transcription. This misreading results in the translation of the dysfunctional UB-B +1 protein with the elongated C-terminus not capable of ligation to a substrate protein. Consequently, the amyloid protein within … Continue reading