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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(2)

Similarly, several components of the UPP showed a statistically significant expression change on Day 18 in expression analysis. On the basis of our studies of sperm ubiquitin in infertile men, we could expect an overall reduction in the percentage of presumably normal spermatozoa with background levels of surface ubiquitin (see Fig. 3, A and B) and predict an overall increase of the sperm ubiquitin levels in THP- and DNB-exposed rats. While we indeed observed a significant reduction in the normal sperm percentage after THP exposure, the overall sperm ubiquitin values were actually lower in the exposed animals than in the control animals on Days 30 and 42.

Sperm fragmentation and widespread tubular disease with THP exposure could explain this seeming paradox. Although the detached heads and tail fragments did show intense ubiquitin immunostaining in epifluorescence microscopy, their small size reduced the individual cell reading in the flow cytometer to a level that was only a small fragment of the reading obtained for intact, whole spermatozoa, regardless of their ubiquitin expression.

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Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(9)

While we found that both constitutive p subunits and their inducible counterparts were expressed in the testis and epididymis, only the constitutional subunits showed significant expression changes in the tissues of the exposed animals. Products of two of the three examined UPP enzyme genes not directly associated with the proteasome, … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(8)

However, several other genes showed significant expression level changes in certain segments alone after either THP or DNB exposure. This indicates that THP and DNB cause significant changes in gene expression in specific compartments of the male reproductive system. For example, Psmb8 showed a P-value of 0.156 between the control … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(7)

Inducible proteasomal core subunits PSMB9, PMSB8, and PSMB10 replace their constitutive counterparts PMSB5, PMSB1, and PMSB2 in the professional antigen-presenting cells but are also present in other cell types, such as eye lens cells and the sperm acrosome. The expression of inducible subunit Pmsb8 as measured by semiquantitative RT was … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(6)

We have shown that defective spermatozoa become ubiquitinated in the caput epididymis, presumably by the enzymatic ubiquitination machinery residing within epididymal fluid. The percentage of defective spermatozoa is reduced after passage through the corpus epididymis. Since proteasomes have also been detected in the epididymal fluid, it is possible that defective … Continue reading

Differential Expression of Genes: DISCUSSION(5)

Alzheimer disease has been linked to the aberrant transcription of the ubiquitin-B (UB-B) gene, caused by a +1 frame-shift during transcription. This misreading results in the translation of the dysfunctional UB-B +1 protein with the elongated C-terminus not capable of ligation to a substrate protein. Consequently, the amyloid protein within … Continue reading